How Solar energy is optimizing energy cost in India.
- What is Solar energy
- Types of solar energy
- Solar energy in india
- Solar energy potential in india
- Solar energy use statewise ?
- harvest energy cost in india
- Plan in 2030
- Future of solar energy in india
- How do you start a solar plant?
- how to set up a solar power system for home ?
- What is Solar energy ?
Solar energy is energy provided by the Sun in the form of solar radiation. Every day the Sun radiates, or sends out, an enormous amount of energy. This Radiant energy has powered life on earth for millions of years and is one of the most important source of energy for life forms. Solar energy is a renewable resource and it is becoming increasingly common that this energy is converted and used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Many technologies can harvest it directly to produce solar electricity for use in homes and businesses globally.
Solar energy is a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light homes and businesses. Solar energy comes from the sun and can be captured with various technologies, primarily solar panels.
- Types of solar energy
Solar energy is changing the way in which we look at how we source the energy we need. Given how fast technology has marched on in line with our search for cleaner energy, let’s take a look at the different types of solar energy available.
1. Photovoltaic Solar Energy
2. Concentrated Solar Energy
3. Water Heating Solar Energy
4. Solar Pool Heating
5. Thermal Solar Energy
3.Solar energy in india
The Sun has been worshiped as a life-giver to our planet since ancient times. The industrial ages gave us the understanding of sunlight as an energy source. India is endowed with vast solar energy potential. About 5,000 trillion kWh per year energy is incident over India’s land area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq. m per day. Solar photovoltaics power can effectively be harnessed providing huge scalability in India. Solar also provides the ability to generate power on a distributed basis and enables rapid capacity addition with short lead times. Off-grid decentralized and low-temperature applications will be advantageous from a rural electrification perspective and meeting other energy needs for power and heating and cooling in both rural and urban areas. From an energy security perspective, solar is the most secure of all sources, since it is abundantly available. Theoretically, a small fraction of the total incident solar energy (if captured effectively) can meet the entire country’s power requirements.
There has been a visible impact of solar energy in the Indian energy scenario during the last few years. Solar energy based decentralized and distributed applications have benefited millions of people in Indian villages by meeting their cooking, lighting and other energy needs in an environment friendly manner. The social and economic benefits include reduction in drudgery among rural women and girls engaged in the collection of fuel wood from long distances and cooking in smoky kitchens, minimization of the risks of contracting lung and eye ailments, employment generation at village level, and ultimately, the improvement in the standard of living and creation of opportunity for economic activities at village level. Further, the solar energy sector in India has emerged as a significant player in the grid connected power generation capacity over the years. It supports the government agenda of sustainable growth, while emerging as an integral part of the solution to meet the nation’s energy needs and an essential player for energy security.
The National Institute of Solar Energy has assessed the Country’s solar potential of about 748 GW assuming 3% of the waste land area to be covered by Solar PV modules. Solar energy has taken a central place in India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change with the National Solar Mission as one of the key Missions. National Solar Mission (NSM) was launched on 11th January, 2010. NSM is a major initiative of the Government of India with active participation from States to promote ecological sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change. The Mission’s objective is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy by creating the policy conditions for solar technology diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. The Mission targets installing 100 GW grid-connected solar power plants by the year 2022. This is in line with India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions(INDCs) target to achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources and to reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent from 2005 level by 2030.
4.Solar energy potential in india
With about 300 clear and sunny days in a year, the calculated solar energy incidence on India’s land area is about 5000 trillion kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year (or 5 EWh/yr). The solar energy available in a single year exceeds the possible energy output of all of the fossil fuel energy reserves in India. The daily average solar-power-plant generation capacity in India is 0.30 kWh per m2 of used land area, equivalent to 1400–1800 peak (rated) capacity operating hours in a year with available, commercially-proven technology.
5. Solar energy use statewise ?
Top five states for solar power production in India
1. Karnataka — 7,100MW
The south-western state of Karnataka heads India’s list of states producing solar energy. With a total installed solar power capacity of about 7,100MW – notwithstanding the 1,000MW of projects in the pipeline – Karnataka is way ahead of the other states.
Karnataka’s 13,000-acre Pavagada Solar Park (or Shakti Sthala) in Tumakuru district is the second-largest solar power plant in India, having previously been the largest of its type in the world, with a production capacity of 2,050MW.
The state is likely to see three more ultra-mega solar power parks, each with a capacity of 2,500MW, in the districts of Bidar, Koppal and Gadag.
2. Telangana — 5,000MW
Telangana has spread solar projects across more than 180 locations (Credit: Pixabay/mrganso)
The southern state of Telangana comes second in terms of solar power capacity in India.
Launched in 2014, following the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana’s total installed solar energy has reached about 5,000MW – a figure it had set for itself to achieve by 2020. This includes standalone rooftop solar units as well as grid-connected ones.
The state also opted for a distributed solar installation model, which has managed to rake in about 450 Indian rupees crore worth of savings. Instead of concentrating these projects at a single location, Telangana has spread them across more than 180 locations.
3. Rajasthan — 4,400MW
Rajasthan has a higher potential for solar power generation than any other region in the country – but it still trails behind Karnataka and Telangana.
As of November 2019, the operational solar power projects in Rajasthan accounted for about 4,400MW of solar energy, while 1,900MW more are in the pipeline. By 2025, Rajasthan aims to install a total capacity of 30,000MW of solar energy.
The 14,000-acre Bhadla Solar Park in Jodhpur is currently the world’s largest fully operational solar park, with a capacity of 2,245MW of installed solar energy. Rajasthan is also home to India’s only tower type solar thermal power plant.
The central government has revealed plans for a 25,000MW ultra-mega renewable energy park. In the next three years, during the project’s first phase, 10,000MW of solar power capacity will be installed in the state.
4. Andhra Pradesh — 3,470MW
Andhra Pradesh claims to be India’s second-largest state in terms of renewables, possessing about 10% of the nation’s clean energy capacity.
With its solar and wind projects totalling about 7,700MW, the state’s cumulative capacity of commissioned solar power is more than 3,470MW, placing it fourth on the list.
The region is home to the 1,000MW ultra-mega solar park in the district of Kurnool. Due to the rising demand for power in the state, the government of Andhra Pradesh is planning for a 10GW mega solar power project. It intends to supply free of charge, uninterrupted power to the agricultural sector.
5. Gujarat — 2,654MW
Out of Gujarat’s current total renewable energy production of 9,670MW, about 2,654MW is solar energy. The state is planning to boost its renewable energy capacity to 30,000MW by 2022.
As of March 2020, it ranked top in India for domestic rooftop solar installations – with a total of 50,915 – which is about 64% of the country’s total of 79,950 fittings.
To support India’s target of installing 100GW of solar capacity, of which 40GW has been planned through solar rooftops, Gujarat is aiming for a solar energy capacity of 8,024MW by 2022, while bringing in 3,200MW via the rooftop segment.
Gujarat’s single-biggest solar power generation capacity can be found in Patan district’s Charanka Solar Park, which currently produces 600MW.
6.Cost of Solar energy in India
India has finally bagged the tag of the lowest cost producer of solar power globally. The country-wise average for the total installed costs of utility scale solar PV in 2018 ranged from a low of $793 per Kilowatt (Kw) – around Rs 5.5 crore per Megawatt — in India to a high of $2,427 per Kw in Canada, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) said today.
“India was estimated to have the lowest total installed costs for new utility-scale solar PV projects that were commissioned in 2018 at $793 per Kw, 27 per cent lower than for projects commissioned in 2017,” IRENA said in a detailed report titled “Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2018” released today.
Further, IRENA conducted an analysis of the decline in the cost of setting up solar PV projects between 2010 and 2018 across eight major markets including China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, UK and the US. The costs were found to have dropped at the fastest pace – 80 per cent – in India.
7. Solar plan 2030
India will have around 60 per cent of its installed electricity generation capacity from clean sources by 2030, Power and New & Renewable Energy Minister R K Singh said on Tuesday.
The minister also exuded confidence that the renewable energy capacity would touch 510 GW by 2030, including 60 GW of hydro power.
In September last year at the United Nations Climate Action Summit, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had announced increasing the renewable energy target to 450 GW by 2030 from 175 GW by 2022.
Participating in a webinar organised by The Energy Resource Institute (TERI), Singh said, “I would say that by 2030, 60 per cent of our capacity will be from renewables, and that is on a conservative scale.”
The minister explained that by 2030, 450 GW of power generation capacity would come from renewables like solar and wind. Besides 60 GW would come from hydro-electric power, he said.
About the progress on clean energy, he said that India’s clean energy capacity including under development projects and hydro electric power is around 190 GW, which is more than the targetted 175 GW by 2022.
During the webinar, the minister launched a report, titled ‘Renewable Power Pathways: Modelling the Integration of Wind and Solar in India by 2030’.
The minister also launched a report titled ‘Bending the Curve: 2025 Forecasts for Electricity Demand by Sector and State in the Light of the COVID Epidemic’.
The two reports have been prepared by Energy Transitions Commission (ETC) India, which is a research platform based at the TERI headquarters in New Delhi.
8. Future scope of Solar energy
Generation of solar energy has tremendous scope in India. The geographical location of the country stands to its benefit for generating solar energy. The reason being India is a tropical country and it receives solar radiation almost throughout the year, which amounts to 3,000 hours of sunshine. This is equal to more than 5,000 trillion kWh. Almost, all parts of India receive 4-7 kWh of solar radiation per sq metres. This is equivalent to 2,300–3,200 sunshine hours per year. States like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, and West Bengal have great potential for tapping solar energy due to their location. Since the majority of the population live in rural areas, there is much scope for solar energy being promoted in these areas. Use of solar energy can reduce the use of firewood and dung cakes by rural households. Many large projects have been proposed in India, some of them are: i).Thar Desert of India has best solar power projects, estimated to generate 700 to 2,100 GW, ii). The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) launched by the Centre is targeting 20,000 MW of solar energy power by 2022, iii).Gujarat’s pioneering solar power policy aims at 1,000 MW of solar energy generation, and Rs. 130 billion solar power plan was unveiled in July 2009, which projected to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020. Apart from above, about 66 MW is installed for various applications in the rural area, amounting to be used in solar lanterns, street lighting systems and solar water pumps, etc. Thus, India has a massive plan for Solar Energy generation that may not only fulfill the deficit of power generation but also contribute largely in Green Energy Production to help to reduce the Climatic Changes globally.
9.How do you start a solar plant?
Solar Energy business is like any other business like automobile, telecom, textile etc. It has same core segment which any other business has. Business can be started in any of these segments.
- R&D: There is vast research going on improving efficiency of modules. Apart from that researcher are also working on transparent solar cell. Not only in solar but various researches are going to improve efficiency of other compponent like inverter, power optimiser, micro-inverter , etc. Huge chunk is invested on such researches by giants.
- Manufacturing: Manufacturing of solar modules, inverters, cables, structure and other material has huge scope in solar like any other industry. Manufactured products can be sold through distributor/trader. Also manufacturer can do OEM for other companies too.
- Consulting: It is not necessary that everyone is equiped with technical & financial knowledge regarding the industry. In such scenerio, consultants are hired for liasioning, designing, preparing tenders, DPRs & feasibility reports, etc
- Execution: Once the project is approved , its time for on-ground work. For the same, installation & commissioing team is required who has complete technical knowledge and skill to complete the job. It would include installation of components, cabling, stringing, earthing, testing, etc
- Trading: For any project to happen, component plays key role. Becoming a distributor and exporting material domestic/international has huge scope in terms of business.
- Training & Human Resource: In any industry, training & hiring proper manpower is important. Training services can be provided to private clients as well to government under various scheme/yojana. Allocation skilled manpower for various role such as technician, designer, manager as per their competency is another business option.
- Maintainence: Every project once commisioned needs proper maintainence to work effectively & effciently. Skilled team on site can be helpful in dealing with various on-site issues.
10. how to set up a solar power system for home ?
DIY + Solar = A lot of fun
There is a special type of solar cell called the ‘Dye Sensitised Solar Cell (DSSC)’. They are made up from using e-waste and natural dyes. I made one myself during college days.
You will need the following –
1) Two waste mobile screens of preferably the same size
2) Titanium Dioxide powder (TiO2) – available with chemical vendors or labs. Toothpaste can be used as an alternative but it will lower down the efficiency
4) Betadine (the one used to heal wounds) or Iodine solution
5) A Candle
6) Some normal miscellaneous items
Step 1: Mix 2-3 gms of TiO2 along with water in a little bowl to turn it into a paste. Apply a thin layer of this paste onto one of the glasses.
Step 2: Crush 2-3 strawberries in a glass of water. The strawberries contain chemicals which ‘sensitise’ when light fall onto them. Hence the panels are called dye sensitised.
Step 3: Pour 4-5 drops of this crushed strawberry liquid on the TiO2 coated glass. This completes your anode.
Step 4: Take the other glass and run it above a burning candle giving the glass a blackish texture. This is carbon deposition.
Step 5: Pour 4-5 drops of Iodine Solution (40% with water) onto this carbon coated glass. This completes your cathode.
Step 6: Combine both the glasses together and seal them using industrial tape or M-Seal. Put it under sunlight for a day to ‘bake’ naturally and your Solar Cell is ready!
These are some panels that I built:
Advantage: These panels can also run under light as they are photo voltaic.
Final Step: Next use this cell as a normal battery. Fix wires from both the ends and try running any low power device like a LED or something.
Want more power? Take 4-5 of such panels, connect them in series and run a DC powered tube light.
Hope this helps a bit! Feel free to connect for more.